Peer-to-peer (P2P) investing, also known as P2P lending, is a form of alternative investment where individuals can lend money directly to other individuals or businesses, bypassing traditional financial intermediaries such as banks. This allows investors to potentially earn higher returns on their investments, as they are able to cut out the middlemen and invest directly in borrowers.
Some of the pros of P2P investing include:
High returns: P2P investors can earn returns that are higher than traditional investments such as bonds or savings accounts. This is because borrowers are willing to pay higher interest rates to access capital without going through traditional banking channels.
Diversification: P2P platforms allow investors to spread their money across a large number of borrowers, which helps to diversify the risk and potentially increase returns.
Accessibility: P2P platforms allow individuals to invest in a wide range of assets, regardless of their net worth or income level. This can make investing more accessible to a wider range of people.
However, P2P investing also has some potential downsides, including:
Risk: P2P investing can be riskier than traditional investments, as borrowers may default on their loans and investors may not be able to recoup their capital. Additionally, P2P platforms may not have the same level of oversight and regulation as traditional financial institutions.
Lack of regulation: P2P platforms are not always regulated in the same way as traditional financial institutions, which can increase the risk of fraud or other types of financial misconduct.
Not suitable for all investors: P2P investing may not be suitable for all investors, particularly those who are risk-averse or who have a low tolerance for volatility.
It's important to note that the regulation of P2P lending varies from country to country, so before investing in P2P it's always recommended to check the regulations and restrictions that applies for your location.
Regulations on P2P Lending in India
Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending in India is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). In April 2017, the RBI issued guidelines for P2P lending platforms, which include the following:
P2P lending platforms must be registered with the RBI as a non-banking financial company (NBFC-P2P).
Platforms must have a minimum net-owned fund of INR 2 crore (approximately $270,000 USD)
Platforms must maintain a minimum liquidity buffer of INR 50 lakh (approximately $68,000 USD)
Platforms must have a minimum credit rating of "A" or equivalent.
Platforms must conduct due diligence on borrowers, including credit checks and income verification.
Platforms must ensure that the total outstanding lending from a lender to all borrowers does not exceed INR 10 lakh (approximately $13,500 USD).
Platforms must ensure that the total outstanding borrowing of a borrower does not exceed INR 10 lakh (approximately $13,500 USD).
Platforms must ensure that no single lender accounts for more than 10% of the total loan book of the platform.
Platforms must provide regular reports to the RBI on their operations, including data on lending and borrowing activities.
The RBI also clarified that P2P lending platforms will not be allowed to accept deposits and that they are not allowed to lend directly or indirectly to their directors, employees, or their relatives.
The regulations are put in place to protect the borrowers and lenders and to ensure that the P2P lending platforms are operating in a fair, transparent and orderly manner. It's important to note that even though P2P lending is becoming more popular in India, it is still in a very nascent stage and the regulations are subject to change.